Научные исследования


WASTEWATER DISPOSAL

Wastewater treatment facilities of 100 – 1 000 m3/day treatment capacity

Wastewater treatment facilities of 1 000 – 10 000 m3/day treatment capacity

Wastewater treatment facilities of 10 000 – 100 000 m3/day treatment capacity

Wastewater treatment facilities of more than 100 000 m3/day treatment capacity

Wastewater Sludge Mechanical Dewatering Department

Digestion Tanks

Bio-Gas Operated Mini-Thermal Power Plants for Treatment Facilities

Wastewater Pumping Stations of the Treatment Capacity within the Range of 50 - 1 000 m3/day

Wastewater Pumping Stations of the Treatment Capacity within the Range of 1 000 - 100 000 m3/day

Wastewater Pumping Stations of the Treatment Capacity Exceeding 100 000 m3/day

Emergency Distribution Reservoirs

All under-mentioned process flow diagrams are made for domestic wastewater or other wastewater types of similar composition; they are of conceptual character and thus require relevant amendments and corrections in the course of design work, taking into account the specific conditions of facilities in question.

All facilities are fully automated thus making it possible to provide their reliable operation in case of attending personnel reduction.


 

Wastewater treatment facilities

of 100 – 1 000 m3/day treatment capacity

The facilities comprise the following:

Mechanical wastewater treatment facilities:

  • fine-meshed screens equipped for compressing and washing of retained pollutants
  • Grit chambers equipped for sand washing to remove organic pollutants

Biological wastewater treatment facilities applying nitrification – denitrification processes and reagent-aided removal of phosphorus compounds.

Advanced wastewater treatment facilities

Wastewater disinfection facilities

Wastewater sludge treatment and mechanical dewatering facilities

 

For low-capacity treatment facilities it is expedient to use modular units made of metal or glass-reinforced plastic.

The cost of building and assembling operations is 30 thousand rubles per 1 m3/day

 

The cost of project and detailed design documentation is calculated as a percentage of the total construction cost depending on the complexity category of the facilities to be designed; approximately it amounts to some 3 – 9 per cent.

The prices for design and survey operations are determined in accordance with the Reference-Book of Design Work Base Prices СБЦП 81-02-03-2001, except the construction of facilities carried out through the employment of the budgetary financial means of the city of Moscow (for these facilities specially developed Price Reference Books МРР are applicable).


 

Wastewater treatment facilities

3/day treatment capacity

The facilities comprise the following:

Mechanical wastewater treatment facilities:

  • fine-meshed screens equipped for compressing and washing of retained pollutants
  • Grit chambers equipped for sand washing to remove organic pollutants
  • Biological wastewater treatment facilities applying nitrification – denitrification processes and reagent-aided removal of phosphorus compounds.
  • Advanced wastewater treatment facilities
  • Wastewater disinfection facilities
  • Wastewater sludge treatment and mechanical dewatering facilities

The composition of treatment facilities is akin to the “basic” one – as a rule, primary settling tanks are not installed in this case and reagent-aided dephosphatation is used instead of biological dephosphatation.

The difference is that for sludge dewatering it is expedient to use sludge thickening and mechanical dewatering facilities; the application of sludge beds is possible.

It is expedient that the treatment facilities of 1-10 thousand m3/day capacity should comprise a special building for the location of technological equipment, while storage facilities should be made either of metal or of concrete.

 

The cost of building and assembling operations is 30 thousand rubles per 1 m3/day

 

The cost of project and detailed design documentation is calculated as a percentage of the total construction cost depending on the complexity category of the facilities to be designed; approximately it amounts to some 3 – 9 per cent.

The prices for design and survey operations are determined in accordance with the Reference-Book of Design Work Base Prices СБЦП 81-02-03-2001, except the construction of facilities carried out through the employment of the budgetary financial means of the city of Moscow (for these facilities specially developed Price Reference Books МРР are applicable).


 

Wastewater treatment facilities

of 10 000 – 100 000 m3/day treatment capacity

Unlike the “basic” variant, the treatment facilities of 10 - 100 thousand m3/day usually comprise primary settling tanks, biological dephosphatation facilities and mechanical sludge dewatering facilities.

The facilities comprise the following:

Mechanical wastewater treatment facilities:

  • Fine-meshed screens equipped for compressing and washing of retained pollutants
  • Grit chambers equipped for sand washing to remove organic pollutants
  • Primary settling tanks –acidification tanks*

Biological wastewater treatment facilities applying nitrification – denitrification processes and reagent-aided removal of phosphorus compounds.

Advanced wastewater treatment facilities

Wastewater disinfection facilities/p>

Wastewater sludge treatment and mechanical dewatering facilities; natural sludge drying facilities (sludge beds) are used as reserve facilities.

* - the necessity to construct these facilities and their configuration are determined in the course of design work

Such treatment facilities comprise buildings for the location of technological equipment and sludge mechanical dewatering. Storage facilities are made of concrete.

 

The cost of building and assembling operations is 30 thousand rubles per 1 m3/day

 

The cost of project and detailed design documentation is calculated as a percentage of the total construction cost depending on the complexity category of the facilities to be designed; approximately it amounts to some 3 – 9 per cent.

The prices for design and survey operations are determined in accordance with the Reference-Book of Design Work Base Prices СБЦП 81-02-03-2001, except the construction of facilities carried out through the employment of the budgetary financial means of the city of Moscow (for these facilities specially developed Price Reference Books МРР are applicable).


Wastewater treatment facilities

of more than 100 000 m3/day treatment capacity

Unlike the “basic” variant, the treatment facilities of more than100 thousand m3/day comprise primary settling tanks, biological dephosphatation facilities, digestion tanks, and sludge thickening and mechanical dewatering facilities, possibly with artificial sludge drying.

It is possible to use a bio-gas operated mini-thermal power plant, this bio-gas being produced as a result of wastewater sludge digestion in digestion tanks 

The facilities comprise the following:

Mechanical wastewater treatment facilities:

  • fine-meshed screens equipped for compressing and washing of retained pollutants
  • Grit chambers equipped for sand washing to remove organic pollutants
  • Primary settling tanks –acidification tanks

Biological wastewater treatment facilities, applying nitrification–denitrification processes, as well as biological and reagent-aided removal of phosphorus compounds

Advanced wastewater treatment facilities

Wastewater disinfection facilities

Wastewater sludge treatment and mechanical dewatering facilities; natural sludge drying facilities (sludge beds) are used as reserve facilities*.

Digestion tanks*

Mini-thermal power plant*

* - the necessity to construct these facilities and their configuration are determined in the course of design work

Such treatment facilities comprise buildings for the location of technological equipment, sludge mechanical dewatering and a mini-thermal power plant. Storage facilities are made of concrete.

The cost of building and assembling operations is within the range of 20 - 30 thousand rubles per 1 m3/day

 

The cost of project and detailed design documentation is calculated as a percentage of the total construction cost depending on the complexity category of the facilities to be designed; approximately it amounts to some 3 – 9 per cent./em>

The prices for design and survey operations are determined in accordance with the Reference-Book of Design Work Base Prices СБЦП 81-02-03-2001, except the construction of facilities carried out through the employment of the budgetary financial means of the city of Moscow (for these facilities specially developed Price Reference Books МРР are applicable).


Wastewater Sludge Mechanical Dewatering Department

For stabilized wastewater sludge utilization and transportation its water content should not exceed 75 – 80 per cent. This water content may be provided through the application of mechanical methods and dewatering equipment.

Designing of new treatment facilities envisages the application of mechanical methods for sludge dewatering. Sludge beds are permitted only as reserve facilities.

For sludge mechanical dewatering centrifuges and filter-presses (belt-type or chamber-type).

 

Schematic diagram of sludge mechanical dewatering

The cost of building and assembling operations – mechanical sludge dewatering – 2.4 million rubles per 1 ton of sludge dry matter

The cost of building and assembling operations wastewater sludge dumping (sludge dumping sites) – 5 000 rubles per m3

The cost of project and detailed design documentation is calculated as a percentage of the total construction cost depending on the complexity category of the facilities to be designed; approximately it amounts to some 3 – 9 per cent.

The prices for design and survey operations are determined in accordance with the Reference-Book of Design Work Base Prices СБЦП 81-02-03-2001, except the construction of facilities carried out through the employment of the budgetary financial means of the city of Moscow (for these facilities specially developed Price Reference Books МРР are applicable).


Digestion Tanks

The choice of sludge treatment systems should be made according to the results of engineering and economic calculations, taking into account their composition and properties, physical, chemical and thermal characteristics, the methods of their subsequent application or location in environment.

Liquid sludges may be stabilized through the application of anaerobic (methane) digestion method. Anaerobic digestion is recommended for the stabilization of sludges produced by treatment facilities of more than 100 thousand m3 per day treatment capacity. Sludge digestion should be carried out in digestion tanks.

Methane digestion may be realized at average temperatures of 30 - 40°C (mesophilic digestion) or at high temperatures of 50 – 60°C (thermophilic digestion).

The choice of mesophilic or thermophilic operating mode depends on the analysis of climatic conditions. Thermophilic temperatures require considerable energy consumption, while the operation of reactors at mesophilic temperatures is more efficient.

 

Schematic Diagram of Sludge Treatment in Digestion Tanks

 

The cost of building and assembling operations is 30 thousand rubles per 1 m of 3 sludge

 

The cost of project and detailed design documentation is calculated as a percentage of the total construction cost depending on the complexity category of the facilities to be designed; approximately it amounts to some 3 – 9 per cent.

The prices for design and survey operations are determined in accordance with the Reference-Book of Design Work Base Prices СБЦП 81-02-03-2001, except the construction of facilities carried out through the employment of the budgetary financial means of the city of Moscow (for these facilities specially developed Price Reference Books МРР are applicable).


Bio-Gas Operated Mini-Thermal Power Plants for Treatment Facilities

The efficiency of sludge treatment facilities – digestion tanks where bio-gas is produced in the process of sludge organic matter decomposition – is improved through bio-gas utilization by mini-thermal power plants that produce electric energy and additional heat.

The process comprises the following:

  • multi-stage treatment of bio-gas
  • bio-gas combustion by modular units
  • transition of the electric energy being produced (through a medium voltage system) for in-line equipment feeding
  • mechanically dewatered sludge drying (to 10 percent water content level) by the steam being produced
  • waste heat utilization – raw sludge heating with the water from the engine cooling system

The application of renewable energy source (bio-gas) improves the energy efficiency of treatment facilities.

Bio-gas operated mini-thermal power plants are ecologically clean: it reduces the emissions of greenhouse gas.

The cost of building and assembling operations is 23 million rubles per 1 megawatt

 

The cost of project and detailed design documentation is calculated as a percentage of the total construction cost depending on the complexity category of the facilities to be designed; approximately it amounts to some 3 – 9 per cent.

The prices for design and survey operations are determined in accordance with the Reference-Book of Design Work Base Prices СБЦП 81-02-03-2001, except the construction of facilities carried out through the employment of the budgetary financial means of the city of Moscow (for these facilities specially developed Price Reference Books МРР are applicable).


Wastewater Pumping Stations of the Treatment Capacity within the Range

of 50 - 1 000 m3/day

Ready-made pumping stations consisting of one or several plastic tanks are used for the projects. These wastewater pumping stations are made by different manufacturers and they have the following advantages compared to traditional WWPSs made of concrete:

  • the body of the well is made of a light-weight and corrosion-proof material
  • manufacturers supply these WWPSs as complete sets with all relevant pumps and pipes being installed
  • convenient and quick assembling
  • small dimensions of WWPSs, no surface pavilion

These WWPSs are fully automated and do not need any attending personnel.

Due to the above-mentioned advantages, the cost of building and assembling operations for such stations is 1.5 – 2 times lower than for traditional wastewater pumping stations.

The figure below gives an example of such a WWPS comprising two vessels. One of the vessels comprises pumping equipment and pipe fittings, while the second one serves as a receiving reservoir comprising a floating liquid-level switch and a screen container for debris retaining.

 

N

Name

N

Name

1

Submersible wastewater pump

11

Anchor bolts

2

Automatic tube coupling with adapter

12

Covered manhole

3

Internal pipeline

13

Ventilation pipe

4

Supply pipe

14

Plastic receiving vessel

5

Delivery pipe

15

WWPS plastic vessel

6

Guide tubes of pumps

16

India rubber expansion pipe

7

Access platform

17

Return valve

8

Lifting chain for pumps

18

Valve

9

Cable entry

19

Control cabinet

10

Stairs

20

Floating liquid-level switch with a cable

 

 

21

Container screen

The cost of building and assembling operations is up to 20 thousand rubles per 1m3 per hour

The cost of project and detailed design documentation is calculated as a percentage of the total construction cost depending on the complexity category of the facilities to be designed; approximately it amounts to some 3 – 9 per cent.

The prices for design and survey operations are determined in accordance with the Reference-Book of Design Work Base Prices СБЦП 81-02-03-2001, except the construction of facilities carried out through the employment of the budgetary financial means of the city of Moscow (for these facilities specially developed Price Reference Books МРР are applicable).


Wastewater Pumping Stations of the Treatment Capacity within the Range

of 1 000 - 100 000 m3/day

As a rule, these pumping stations are located in a one-storied building having a subterranean part.

         The over-ground part of the building comprises the following:

  • Installation site
  • Water metering unit
  • Control room
  • Inflow ventilation chamber
  • Exhaust ventilation chamber
  • On-call room
  • Ancillary premises

The subterranean part comprises the following:

  • Screen chamber equipped with screens or comminutors
  • Receiving tank with pumping equipment

Near the pumping station a subterranean chamber on pressure pipelines is located; it is equipped with flow-meters and overhaul valves.

The figure below gives an example of a pumping station project of 8 000 m3 per day capacity, submersible pumps being installed.

 

1. Submersible wastewater pump

2. Comminutor

3. Supply pipeline

4. Discharge pipeline

5. Supply pipeline valve

6. Discharge pipeline valve

7. Inverting valve

8. Electrically-driven sluice-gate

9. Inverted valve

The cost of building and assembling operations is up to 20 000 rubles per 1m3 per hour

The cost of project and detailed design documentation is calculated as a percentage of the total construction cost depending on the complexity category of the facilities to be designed; approximately it amounts to some 3 – 9 per cent.

The prices for design and survey operations are determined in accordance with the Reference-Book of Design Work Base Prices СБЦП 81-02-03-2001, except the construction of facilities carried out through the employment of the budgetary financial means of the city of Moscow (for these facilities specially developed Price Reference Books МРР are applicable).


Wastewater Pumping Stations of the Treatment Capacity

Exceeding 100 000 m3/day

As a rule, these pumping stations are located in a one-storied or a multi-storied building having a deep-level subterranean part.

Construction solutions for the subterranean part of a pumping station are developed for various types of ground, including difficult hydro-geological conditions.

The over-ground part of the building comprises the following:

  • Installation sites providing the access of vehicles for equipment and fittings reloading into machine and pumping rooms
  • Transformer station
  • Power switchboard
  • Electric control room
  • Inflowventilation chamber
  • Exhaust ventilation chamber
  • On-call room
  • Accommodation module and office premises
  • Ancillary premises

 

The subterranean part comprises the following:

  • Screen chamber equipped with mechanical screens
  • Receiving tank
  • Machine room with pumping equipment

 

High-voltage pumps of high unit capacity are used for wastewater pumping

Near the pumping station a subterranean chamber on pressure pipelines is located; it is equipped with flow-meters and overhaul valves.

The figure below gives an example of a pumping station project of 100 000 m3 per day capacity, vertical pumps being installed.

 

1. Vertical wastewater pump

2. Fine-mesh screen

3. Supply pipeline

4. Discharge pipeline

5. Supply pipeline valve

6. Discharge pipeline valve

7. Electrically-driven sluice-gate

8. Inverted valve

 

The cost of building and assembling operations is up to 20 thousand rubles per 1m3 per hour

The cost of project and detailed design documentation is calculated as a percentage of the total construction cost depending on the complexity category of the facilities to be designed; approximately it amounts to some 3 – 9 per cent.

The prices for design and survey operations are determined in accordance with the Reference-Book of Design Work Base Prices СБЦП 81-02-03-2001, except the construction of facilities carried out through the employment of the budgetary financial means of the city of Moscow (for these facilities specially developed Price Reference Books МРР are applicable).


Emergency Distribution Reservoirs

Emergency distribution reservoirs are aimed at improving the throughput of a wastewater network during maximum wastewater inflows, providing the economical operation of wastewater pumping stations and reducing the irregularity of hourly wastewater inflow to treatment facilities.

Distribution reservoirs are to the equalize (level) the peak flow of wastewater being pumped. In the hours of maximum wastewater inflow to a station, some part of it is pumped to the distribution reservoir and in the hours of minimal wastewater inflow it is discharged into the supply pipeline of wastewater pumping station. Distribution reservoirs are filled and emptied automatically.

Emergency reservoirs are aimed at wastewater reception during shutdowns of a wastewater pumping station power supply.  

Purification of ventilation exhausts is envisaged to avoid atmospheric emissions of odorous gases from the wastewater entering emergency distribution reservoirs. Prior to discharge into atmosphere, the air being removed is treated by charcoal adsorbers where such odorous substances as hydrogen sulfide, lower mercaptans, ammonia, amines and other volatile substances of the kind are removed.

The design of adsorbers provides efficient treatment of the entire volume of received air and prevents any considerable changes in pressure. This is achieved through a considerable contact area of activated carbon and a thin layer of carbon layer. The adsorbers may be completed with various types of granular activated carbon.

The room where adsorbers are installed is located directly above the emergency distribution reservoir. The exterior is laconic, the design of walls applies a suspended façade system and thermal insulation of non-flammable mineral cotton slabs. Ceramic granite façade tiles are used as a protective and decorative exterior layer. For the roof, energy-efficient thermal insulation of mineral cotton slabs 150 mm thick and rolls of polymeric bitumen fusion-bonded material are used; for triple-pane windows, PVC sections are used; the lifting gates are sectional and thermally insulated, wickets are provided.

The cost of building and assembling operations is up to 25 thousand rubles per 1m3per hour

 

The cost of project and detailed design documentation is calculated as a percentage of the total construction cost depending on the complexity category of the facilities to be designed; approximately it amounts to some 3 – 9 per cent.

The prices for design and survey operations are determined in accordance with the Reference-Book of Design Work Base Prices СБЦП 81-02-03-2001, except the construction of facilities carried out through the employment of the budgetary financial means of the city of Moscow (for these facilities specially developed Price Reference Books МРР are applicable).

 

22, Pleteshkovsky Pereulok, 105005, Moscow Tel: 8 (499)261-53-84; Fax: 8 (499)261-77-75  e-mail: post@mvkniipr.ru

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