Научные исследования


WASTE MANAGEMENT

Waste transfer station

Waste Sorting Factory

SDW Thermal Neutralization Enterprise

Solid Domestic Waste Dumping Site

Unsorted SDW landfill is an archaic method requiring large areas and bringing irretrievable detriment to environment. The most efficient way is the combination of various methods for waste processing resulting in secondary raw material and/or technical compost production, unutilized fraction neutralization and “tailings” burial on a waste dumping site. At present various waste handling technologies exist and they are successively used in our practice.


 

Waste transfer station.

The application of waste transfer stations provides the following possibilities:

  • To cut down the costs of SDW transportation to remote waste dumping sites
  • To reduce the need in refuse collecting trucks due to 2 – 5 times increased turn-round for short distances;
  • To avoid any congestions of refuse-collecting trucks on SDW dumping sites
  • To avoid any long-distance travels of light-duty refuse collecting trucks ;
  • To improve the process of SDW storage
  • To cut down the expenses related to parking and operation of the fleet of refuse collection trucks
  • To reduce the environmental load of vehicles

 

The composition of facilities:

1. Production complex

2. Weigh office and control room

3. Check-point

4. Gates

5. Trestlework**

6. Treatment facilities*

7. Container yard*

8. Parking place*

 

* if necessary

** depending on loading method

Comparative economic indices

 

Specific capital costs, rubles/ton of SDW (2013 prices)

Specific operational costs rubles/ton of SDW (2013 prices)

Total

Including equipment

Including construction and installation work

Waste transfer station

150

120

30

1000

(including transportation costs)

 

The cost of project and detailed design documentation is calculated as a percentage of the total construction cost depending on the complexity category of the facilities to be designed; approximately it amounts to some 3 – 9 per cent.

The prices for design and survey operations are determined in accordance with the Reference-Book of Design Work Base Prices СБЦП 81-02-03-2001, except the construction of facilities carried out through the employment of the budgetary financial means of the city of Moscow (for these facilities specially developed Price Reference Books МРР are applicable).

 


 

Waste Sorting Factory.

One of the promising methods for waste processing and secondary resources production is the method of waste sorting and subsequent transportation of SDW ballast fractions transportation to waste dumping sites, thus making it possible to use efficiently the waste-derived secondary resources and to increase considerably the life of waste dumping sites, resulting in reduced atmospheric air, soil, surface water and ground water pollution. This method of waste processing makes it possible to reduce maximally the process cost and obtain a considerable economic profit.

Сортировка отходов бывает ручная, механическая, а также методом гидросепарации. На практике наиболее часто применяются сочетания ручной и механической сортировки.

The composition of facilities:

  • Production complex
  • Administrative office and accommodation space building
  • Weigh office and control room
  • Check-point
  • Gates
  • Treatment facilities
  • Trestlework**
  • Container yard *
  • Garage*
  • Repair area*
  • Parking place* 

* if necessary 

Solid Domestic Waste Sorting Complex – an Example of Expanded Process Flow Diagram

Solid Domestic Waste Sorting on the Basis of Hydro-Separation Method – an Example of Process Flow Diagram

Solid Domestic Waste Biological Treatment and Electric Power Production on the Basis of Hydro-Separation Method – an Example of Process Flow Diagram 

Comparative economic Indices of SDW processing facilities 

 

 

Specific capital costs, rubles/ton of SDW (2013 prices)

Specific operational costs rubles/ton of SDW (2013 prices)

Total

Including equipment

Including construction and installation work

Waste sorting enterprises:

 

- 150 000 t/year and more

- below 150 000 t/year

 

 

500

710

 

 

300

426

 

 

200

284

 

 

600

Technical compost production enterprises (of SDW organic fraction)

 

560

 

336

 

224

 

550

 

The cost of project and detailed design documentation is calculated as a percentage of the total construction cost depending on the complexity category of the facilities to be designed; approximately it amounts to some 3 – 9 per cent.

The prices for design and survey operations are determined in accordance with the Reference-Book of Design Work Base Prices СБЦП 81-02-03-2001, except the construction of facilities carried out through the employment of the budgetary financial means of the city of Moscow (for these facilities specially developed Price Reference Books МРР are applicable).

 


 

SDW Thermal Neutralization Enterprise .

One of the variants of SDW elimination is their thermal neutralization (incineration) is special boiler systems resulting in thermal and electric power production both for the own needs of the enterprise and for urban municipal needs, solid incineration waste being utilized simultaneously.

SDW thermal treatment may be realized in different ways. In practice this is fluidized bed combustion and application of grate incinerators.

The facilities comprise the following:

  • Production complex
  • Administrative office and accommodation space building
  • Weigh office and control room
  • Check-point
  • Gates
  • Treatment facilities
  • Gas distribution plant
  • Compressor room
  • Power generating unit
  • Trestlework**
  • Container yard *
  • Garage*
  • Repair area*
  • Parking place*

* if needed 

SDW Thermal Processing on the Basis of a Grate Incinerator – Process Flow Diagram

 

1 – SDW intake compartment

2 – Reception hopper

3 – Boiler unit

4 – Activated carbon feed unit

5 – Absorber

6 – Sleeve filter

7 – Slag bin

8 – Ash bin

9 – Nitrogen oxide feed system

10 – Metal removal from slag 

Fluidized-Bed Thermal Processing of Solid Domestic Waste – Process Flow Diagram 

1 – Grab-bucket crane

2 – SDW combustion furnace

3 – Waste-heat boiler

4 – Cyclone separator

5 – Absorber

6 – Fly-ash reactor

7 – Sleeve filter

8 – Slag bin

9 – Ash bin

 

Some particular technologies for medicinal waste, biological waste and wastewater sludge handling, as well as the methods for alternative energy production (in particular using the bio-gas produced by treatment facilities, mini thermal power stations and SDW dumping sites) require special attention. They are discussed separately. 

Biological Waste Thermal Neutralization – an Example of Process Flow Diagram

Wastewater Sludge Thermal Neutralizationan Example of Process Flow Diagram

Comparative Economic Indices

Specific capital costs, rubles/ton of SDW (2013 prices)

Specific operational costs rubles/ton of SDW (2013 prices)

 

Total

Including equipment

Including construction and installation work

 

Waste incineration plant

20000

12000

8000

1500

The cost of project and detailed design documentation is calculated as a percentage of the total construction cost depending on the complexity category of the facilities to be designed; approximately it amounts to some 3 – 9 per cent.

The prices for design and survey operations are determined in accordance with the Reference-Book of Design Work Base Prices СБЦП 81-02-03-2001, except the construction of facilities carried out through the employment of the budgetary financial means of the city of Moscow (for these facilities specially developed Price Reference Books МРР are applicable).

 


 

Solid Domestic Waste Dumping Site

A modern solid domestic waste dumping site is a complex of facilities designed for centralized collection, neutralization and burial of solid domestic waste preventing thus the penetration of hazardous substances into environment, atmospheric air, soil, surface water and ground water pollution, spread of rodents, insects and pathogenic microorganisms.

The facilities comprise the following:

  • A weighbridge and a radiation monitoring point
  • Disinfection bath for decontamination of truck wheels
  • Administrative office and accommodation space building
  • SDW sorting building
  • Finished product storehouse
  • Covered parking place
  • Mechanical workshop
  • Fire-fighting water tanks
  • Storm water treatment facilities
  • Packaged transformer substation
  • Boiler house
  • Storage area for reinforced concrete slabs to be used for temporary road construction
  • Parking place for cars
  • Septic tanks
  • Leachate inspection well
  • Water tower
  • Earth deposits for insulation purposes
  • Inspection wells for groundwater monitoring
  • Treatment facilities

Impervious screen is the main design element of a modern SDW dumping site. 

In the process of solid domestic waste dumping in the body of a dumping site, under the conditions of oxygen deficiency and high humidity and temperatures, natural anaerobic decomposition of organic waste takes place. Biogas (a mixture of methane and carbon dioxide) is among the products of this process.

Landfill gas collection, neutralization and utilization: an example of process flow diagram

Economic indices for the construction and operation of SDW dumping sites

Index

Measurement unit

Capital costs (2013 prices)

Specific operational costs, rubles/ton of SDW (2013 prices)

SDW dumping site construction

150

Impervious screen (synthetic)

Thousand rubles/ha

15000 - 30000

Process equipment:

- below 150 000 t/year

- 150 000 – 300 000 t/year

- above 300 000 t/year

Thousand rubles

 

19500

39000

58500

Additionally:

- Office and accommod. building

- checkpoint

- disinfection bath

- weighbridge

- vehicle parking place

- treatment facilities

Thousand rubles

 

12000

500

100

3500

1000

40000

 

SDW dumping site recultivation

 

Technical stage

Thousand rubles/ha

16000 – 23000

 

Biogas organized collection system

Thousand rubles/ha

1300 – 1500

 

Gas discharge system

Thousand rubles/ha

600 – 800

 

Biological stage

Thousand rubles/ha

5400

 

 

The cost of project and detailed design documentation is calculated as a percentage of the total construction cost depending on the complexity category of the facilities to be designed; approximately it amounts to some 3 – 9 per cent.

The prices for design and survey operations are determined in accordance with the Reference-Book of Design Work Base Prices СБЦП 81-02-03-2001, except the construction of facilities carried out through the employment of the budgetary financial means of the city of Moscow (for these facilities specially developed Price Reference Books МРР are applicable).

 

22, Pleteshkovsky Pereulok, 105005, Moscow Tel: 8 (499)261-53-84; Fax: 8 (499)261-77-75  e-mail: post@mvkniipr.ru

Яндекс.Метрика

 

Copyright ©2015 «MosvodokanalNIIproject JSC»